I finished reading this book a couple months ago, and it’s still in my head. I’m still thinking about the story, the characters, the ending… that to me is the sign of a classic and enduring novel. The threat may no longer be relevant to our society and culture, but the message and the questions of the novel always will be.
Once again, I find myself trying to kickstart my blog all over again. I do OK for a while, but then slowly fade away. Maybe I’ll do a better job this time… though I doubt it. To start off… some old photos I took a few years back of fall in Maine.
I’m finally posting again, after a few months of school insanity and then recovery. I hope to get back to writing the blog more often with things I’ve learned in class. This is a short paper I wrote for Old Testament Theology on Abraham and Yahweh. I loved learning this and doing the research. The assignment was to take the story of Abraham (Genesis 11:27-25:11) and study the relationship between Abraham and Yahweh. We could not refer to any other part of the Old Testament or New Testament, but had to take the story as it stood on its own. It was a tremendously revealing experience, and I understand Abraham and Yahweh so much more deeply.
While hindsight can reveal the past more clearly to people, sometimes it can limit the ability to understand what was happening during a given event. It is easy to take knowledge learned later on and examine the past. Many times this can be a fruitful study, but other times this knowledge can block insight into how the people within the events understood what was taking place. Such is the case with the story of Abraham1 in Genesis 11:27-25:11. It is a familiar story to many Christians. But what was going on for Abraham? Setting aside the revelations of the later Old and New Testaments is not easy, but doing so enables the reader to understand Abraham’s perspective. Reading the text on its own reveals the growing personal relationship between Yahweh and Abraham over a span of approximately 100 years. This essay will examine how that relationship grew from a general deity-human relationship into a deep, personal relationship of faith, trust and covenantal connection.
When Yahweh first speaks with Abraham, Yahweh gives a command and a promise to Abraham. Yahweh commands Abraham to leave his father’s household and go to another land, which Yahweh will show him. Yahweh also promises that Abraham will be made into a great nation (12:1-2). It is striking that Abraham does not seem surprised that God is speaking with him with commands and promises. Without any apparent hesitation, Abraham leaves. When he reaches Shechem in Canaan, Yahweh appears to Abraham and promises him that this land is meant for his descendants (12:6-7). Abraham builds an altar to Yahweh there and at each of the next few places he stays. This is likely an automatic ritual response to Yahweh’s words and appearance – he obeys Yahweh and builds an altar to worship him. The relationship is a distant deity to human relationship, which was common in the Ancient Near East culture. Yahweh speaks, and Abraham obeys, but never verbally responds to Yahweh.
The relationship between Yahweh and Abraham begins to deepen after Abraham has to rescue Lot from his kidnappers. On his victorious return, Abraham meets Melchizedek, the priest of El Eleyon, God Most High, and they break bread and take wine together. Abraham seems to learn from Melchizedek, who calls Yahweh Koneh shamayim va-arets, “acquirer” or “possessor” of heaven and earth (14:18-19). Abraham then uses this title when rejecting the king of Sodom’s offer of the spoils, saying he is sworn to Yahweh, Koneh shamayim va-arets, and will not be made rich by any man (14:22-23). This is the first time in the narrative that Abraham verbally declares his allegiance to Yahweh. With this statement, Abraham sets himself apart from the Canaanites as a follower and worshiper of Yahweh, instead of the Canaanite gods.
It is no coincidence that after this declaration comes the relationship’s most significant event – the covenant. The covenant is a crucial part of Ancient Near East culture, and Yahweh uses the covenant to deepen his relationship with Abraham. Even before the covenant is formally enacted, however, the relationship between Yahweh and Abraham has changed. Abraham is no longer a passively obedient worshipper of Yahweh, but is an active participant in the relationship, conversing with and asking questions of Yahweh, whom he calls Adonai (“Lord”) (15:2-3,8). Yahweh’s responds to Abraham’s questions with promises, commanding Abraham to look at the stars, saying his descendants will be that numerous. Despite all natural circumstances being against the fulfillment of Yahweh’s promises, Abraham believes (15:4-6). When faced with the question of how Abraham will possess the land, Yahweh commands a specific kind of sacrifice from Abraham (a heifer, goat, ram, dove and pigeon) and then, in the symbols of a smoking firepot and blazing torch, passes between the halves of the sacrifice, cutting a covenant with Abraham to demonstrate his commitment to his promises (15:9, 17). The personal relationship between Yahweh and Abraham now includes the legal aspect of the covenant, when the sovereign power (Yahweh) cuts a covenant with the subordinate person (Abraham).
Years pass before the narrative returns to the relationship between Yahweh and Abraham. There is no indication of whether Yahweh and Abraham have spoken since the covenant was cut. When Yahweh appears, saying that he is El Shaddai (“God Almighty”) and commands Abraham to walk before him and be blameless, Abraham falls facedown (17:1b-3a). Abraham’s reaction is intriguing, as he has never before fallen facedown when Yahweh has appeared to him (12:7). Why is he falling facedown now? Perhaps the covenant has changed the relationship, but the text is not clear why Abraham falls facedown here. At Yahweh’s appearance, he commands Abraham to circumcise all the males of his household as a symbol of their covenant (17:10). Circumcision was not widely practiced in Canaanite culture, and would likely set Abraham and his household apart from the Canaanites. Abraham obeys the command, but before doing so, questions Yahweh’s promise to give him a son through Sarah and begs Yahweh to give Ishmael his blessing (17:17-18). The reader is left wondering whether Yahweh and Abraham have continued to speak with one another, or if this is the first time in thirteen or more years that Yahweh has spoken with Abraham. Abraham’s request that Ishmael receive the blessing seems like an old argument between Yahweh and Abraham.
In the next part of the narrative, Yahweh arrives at Abraham’s tent in the guise of a man, accompanied by two other men. Abraham seems very aware that it is Yahweh who is visiting him, though it is not explained how. It simply describes Abraham’s low bow and hospitality (18:1-8). After the three men have eaten, Abraham walks with Yahweh and bargains for Lot’s life (18:16-33). Abraham is asking a favor of his God and sovereign, and he does so in a hesitant fashion. He never directly asks Yahweh to spare Lot. Abraham is close enough with Yahweh to walk and talk with him, yet he never forgets his reverence and respect for the one he calls Shophet, the one who judges (18:25).
As much reverence as Abraham has for Yahweh, he never loses his awareness that the Canaanites have no like reverence (20:11). Despite Yahweh declaring himself as Abraham’s shield (15:1), Abraham lies to protect himself. Ultimately Yahweh proves he is capable of protecting both Abraham and Sarah (20:3-7). Yahweh’s speech and actions to Abimelech and his household cause Abimelech to acknowledge and fear Yahweh, but he does not begin to serve and worship him. Instead, Abimelech makes a treaty with Abraham, so that Yahweh will have no reason to punish him (21:22-32). This emphasizes that, despite the appearance of Melchizedek, Yahweh is Abraham’s God, not a god of the Canaanites. His commands, promises and covenant deal with Abraham, and therefore Abraham’s household, alone.
The first promise of Yahweh is fulfilled when Sarah gives birth to Isaac when Abraham is a hundred years old (21:1-6), twenty-five years after Yahweh’s promise to make him into a great nation (12:1-2). After Isaac’s birth, Abraham never questions Yahweh again. Even when Yahweh commands Abraham to listen to Sarah and send away Ishmael, his son by Hagar, Abraham does not ask why or even bargain for Ishmael to stay (21:11-13). The birth of Isaac is a significant event in the life of Abraham, because it is the fulfillment of Yahweh’s covenantal promise to give Abraham an heir of his body by his wife. This is the first promise of Yahweh to come to complete fruition. It confirms the faith and trust that Abraham has in Yahweh.
While Abraham has questioned Yahweh, he has always followed Yahweh’s commands. After Isaac was born and Ishmael sent away, Yahweh commands Abraham to offer Isaac as a burnt offering at Moriah (22:2). Abraham shows his faith in Yahweh through his obedient and unquestioning response. Yahweh responds to Abraham’s faith by commanding him to stop and gives him a ram to sacrifice instead. Why does Abraham not protest the sacrifice of his son? It is perhaps because the personal and covenantal relationship between Yahweh and Abraham has solidified into a deep, true and faithful understanding. Yahweh’s promises have been fulfilled. He has been a shield to Abraham and his household, and he has given Abraham a son through Sarah. Abraham trusts Yahweh so much he does not hesitate to sacrifice Isaac at Yahweh’s command.
The sacrifice is the last direct encounter Yahweh and Abraham have within the text. Although Abraham speaks of God as “Yahweh, God of heaven and God of earth” to his servant, and the servant prays to Yahweh, his master’s God, while seeking a wife for Isaac, Yahweh does not again appear in the text. Abraham continues to worship and trust Yahweh, and Yahweh continues to bless Abraham (24:1-3).
Throughout the story of Abraham, the relationship with Yahweh has grown and changed. This was not an instantaneous transformation but took many years to develop. By the end, Abraham does not need an explicit promise from Yahweh to know that Yahweh will help his servant find a non-Canaanite wife for Isaac (24:7). Abraham’s faith in Yahweh is complete. What began as a traditional relationship between god and man, filled with the rituals of Abraham’s culture, was transformed into a deep personal and covenantal relationship between Yahweh, Sovereign Lord and Eternal God, and Abraham, faithful and righteous man.
We’re all familiar with the book of Ruth, a small four-chapter book tucked between Judges and 1 Samuel. It’s considered a sweet story by many, and the words of Ruth to Naomi have been read at many weddings (“Where you go, I will go, and where you stay, I will stay…”). It was likely placed where it was because it was seen as a historical narrative; therefore, its place should be among the historical books. It was placed between Judges and 1 Samuel because that was the most likely time frame of the book.
One thing a lot of people may not realize is that the Hebrew Bible has a different organization of the books of the Bible. It goes as follows:
Torah – what Christian Bibles have as the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Prophets (Navi’im) – this is split into the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the Twelve – Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi)
Writings (Kethubhim) – this is Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Canticles (Song of Solomon or Song of Songs), Ecclesiastes, Threni (Lamentations), Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles
Looking at the books in the order the Hebrew Bible puts them in can offer some addition insight into the books. For example, Ruth. When we look at it in our Bibles, it fits neatly into our historical books. In the Hebrew order, when Ruth follows the book of Proverbs, the last verses a reader would have read would be Proverbs 31… the chapter with the acrostic on the virtuous woman. In his book on OT Theology, John Sailhamer points out that the acrostic begins with “A virtuous woman, who can find?” (verse 10) and ends with “her deeds will praise her in the gates” (verse 31). If we immediately read through the book of Ruth, we find that the climax of Ruth comes in 3:11 (the words of Boaz to Ruth) – “All those in the gate of my people know that you are a virtuous woman.” This not only identifies Ruth with the virtuous woman of Proverbs 31, but also connects her and her story with the wisdom theme of the book of Proverbs. It is not only due to Ruth’s virtue, but also to her wise decisions, that bring her story to a happy and blessed conclusion.
You may also notice that the Songs of Songs follows Ruth, but I’ll leave that potential connection for you to ponder…
It’s been a while since I’ve posted with fun things I’m learning in Hebrew – it’s been busy. But here is something interesting I’ve learned this week…
We’re all used to the translations of Genesis 2:9 which says, “the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” However, in class, we talked about what a more accurate translation would be. First, the second “of” in the phrase is inaccurate. If we take it out, that leaves “the tree of knowledge, good and evil.” Second, we have to understand what tov and ra means in Hebrew. Truthfully, translating those words as “good and evil” isn’t accurate. When we translate them as such, we think in terms of morality or in cognitive terms, when they are actually experiential terms.
Tov can be thought of as positive or pleasurable experiences. It involves an aesthetic that is good in the eye (and experience) of the beholder and experiencer. “And God saw the light and it was good” – meaning, he experienced it and it was pleasant to him.
Ra can be thought of as a negative or painful experience. It is undesirable and injurious to the person seeing or experiencing it.
We also have to look at how the phrase itself functions. This phrase is most likely a merism, which is an expression which takes the beginning and ending of a series and uses it to denote everything in the middle. We use merisms when we say “A to Z” – we mean the whole alphabet. As a merism, this phrase “good and evil” means the range of human experience, from positive to negative, from pleasing to injurious, from pleasure to pain. This is the entirety of human experience.
“the tree of knowledge, pleasurable (experiences) through painful (experiences).”
This is not a tree of moral observance. Eating of this tree gave Adam and Eve the change to experience everything humanity could experience, from pleasure to pain.
So what does this mean when we’re talking about the tree of life versus the tree of knowledge, and how does this affect what the Fall means?
The choice for Adam and Eve was whether to trust God or to experience the world on their own. God put the choice out there because obedience cannot be based on having only one option. Adam and Eve sinned by choosing not to trust God, but to go their own way and experience human life on their own. To experience pleasure and pain and everything in between. And everything included death.
We can choose to trust God and receive life, or we can choose to experience things on our own and receive death. What will our choice be?
I discovered something fun today while translating my Hebrew – the meaning of Eden. Like many proper names, Eden has a meaning… and that meaning is joy, rapture, or even ecstasy. If you look at Genesis 2:8, it can be translated “And YHWH God planted a garden in Eden (meaning: joy, rapture) in/out of the east and he put there the man which he formed.”
I asked my professor whether this could possibly be translated simply as “planted a garden in joy” and he said that it was clear from Genesis 2-3 that Eden is used as a proper name. However, names are significant in Hebrew, and it is clear that the name itself is derived from joy, rapture, luxury and pleasure. This name, Dr. Stone said, “captures the essence of this garden.”
I am continually amazed by what I discover in my translations and study. It is an amazing thing that God created humanity and then immediately created a garden named Eden (joy) as a place for Adam to live. To me, this makes the creation story even more personal and moving. It is sometimes too easy to see God as a distant Creator, one who makes something and then calmly declares it good. But I think this passage – once we know the meaning of Eden as joy – makes the Creator more personal. I also don’t think it’s a coincidence that this is the passage that begins using Yahweh (the proper name of God) rather than the more distant Elohim. We use someone’s name when we’re in relationship, and it seems that this passage is starting to introduce Yahweh and show the relationship with his created people. This passage begins to show the reader the joy that God found in creating and breathing life into humanity, and how he desires everything good for us to the point of creating a garden named joy. It almost feels like God was so excited about the person he had created that he desired to make a special home for him.
One could go negative with this and think of how humanity then ruined the garden through sin… but ultimately the Bible says that one day there will be a new heaven and a new earth for redeemed humanity to live in.
I wonder if it will be named joy.
The coolest thing about being able to translate from the Hebrew (or Greek) is being able to pick up on some of the nuances that translations just can’t give you. Over the last couple days I’ve worked to translate Genesis 1:1-13. This might seem like an easy passage, and to some extent it is. When you get to those repeated, simple phrases (“and it was evening and it was morning,” “and it was so,” etc.), they’re definitely easy to translate (and provide a nice break from tearing out your hair over the other stuff.
Before I begin, I want to point out that I am still very much a student. I could be wrong. I’m tossing out my ideas here to hopefully inspire discussion – or at least make you think a little. Maybe I’m right, maybe I’m wrong. One thing I do know is that God honors our search for the truth, though we may wander along dead ends from time to time.
So that said, here are some things I’ve learned from the first 13 verses of Genesis.
1) Despite most translations saying “In the beginning,” Genesis 1:1 is more literally translated “In a beginning, God created.” Some (including my professor, Dr. Lawson Stone) have suggested that this could be turned into a temporal phrase, “When God began to create.” Either way, I wonder why translations added a “the” which wasn’t there. Maybe I’ll learn that in class tomorrow.
2) When God creates the light and separates it from the darkness, there is a strong sense of naming in Genesis 1:5. In many translations of the English, it comes across somewhat weaker than in Hebrew. Compare “And God called the light ‘day'” with “And God called to the light, ‘Day.” Ditto with “Night” and with “Sky” (Genesis 1:8) and with “Land/Earth” and “Seas” (Genesis 1:10). I could be wrong, but I get the feeling God didn’t just casually call them something; he was giving them their names. God also named Adam (and Adam was given the high privilege of naming the animals). I don’t think this in any way implies that creation (day, night, sky, earth and sea – or animals) is equally important to God as humanity, which is created in His image. But that doesn’t mean the earth is unimportant either. He created it and it was good. It’s important not to forget that – and that we are called to be stewards of this world.
3) Based on which verb forms the Hebrew uses, different nuances can be understood. A really fun one appears in Genesis 1:11. I won’t go into all the gory details of conjugating the verb, but in the Hebrew there is the understanding that God did not cause the green plants (grass, etc.) to grow. He commanded the earth to do it. A very literal translation might be, “Let the earth cause itself to be green [or to sprout]…” I suppose it shouldn’t surprise us that the earth was created to bring forth life. Do we really think that God causes every flower to bloom and every seed to fall and every plant to grow? Dr. Lawson Stone said something very interesting last semester: “Who is the better “programmer”? The one who can create something or the one who can create a world that can create or rewrite itself?” God created a world that can create. Not that the world is sentient or divine – I’m certainly not advocating pantheism – but I believe that looking at the world around us, and seeing the amazing things that the world produces and creates, shows us how wise and amazing the Creator is.